ATC Avionics and Flight Management Systems for the Air Transport Pilot

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This manual provides a reference text for part of the study for the ATPL examination titled, Aircraft General Knowledge. The balance of necessary information is contained in a sister volume Aerodynamics, Engines and Airframe Systems for the Air Transport Pilot. The volumes were separated because of the complexity of the subject and the possibility that the examination was to be split in to two elements. It is currently still one examination. This volume contains reference material which has been made as practical as possible while still complying with the essential elements of the curriculum. The reference aircraft is the Boeing B767-300 but where applicable we have mentioned equivalent systems in other aircraft types. This volume includes: * area navigation system; * flight instrument systems including EFIS; * flight management systems; * autopilot and flight director systems; and * warning and recording systems. From the preface... In producing this manual, our aim has been to provide a basic understanding, in generic terms, of the avionics and flight management systems used in modern transport category aeroplanes. Extensive use has been made of specific material drawn from the B767-300ER operations manuals used by various international carriers, and the text should be read in conjunction with the extracts from one of these manuals, which can be obtained from the CASA flight crew examinations section. It must be emphasized that we are not providing training, nor is CASA testing, for a type endorsement. This is the task of the individual airline/company. This manual has been prepared to meet the demands of the aviation training industry for a suitable reference text for students who are studying for the Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) written examination, as well as for instructors preparing their teaching material. The material in this manual meets the requirements set down by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) in the ATPL knowledge syllabus, which has been issued in accordance with the standards and recommended practices established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and set out in Annex 1 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Throughout the text, reference has been made to the systems and equipment fitted in the B767. The material has been drawn from operation manuals used by various international airlines operating the B767-300ER. As will be seen from the title of this manual, it covers avionics and flight management systems, and these terms are used in their broadest sense. Although avionics has traditionally been covered under the generic heading of navigation, the transport aeroplane of today uses its flight management system to integrate navigation inputs from various sources with the electronic flight instrument systems, the autopilot flight director system, and the various warning and recording systems. The subjects covered in this manual are summarised below. * Area navigation systems. This deals with both short-range and long-range area navigation (RNAV) systems, with particular emphasis on inertial reference systems (IRS) and GPS. The IRS is covered in some detail with the latest strapdown system used in aeroplanes such as the B767 as the main reference. * Flight instrument systems. Following a brief review of conventional flight instruments, including data transmission systems, the air data computer, and the flight director, this chapter deals in detail with electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS) and the engine indicating and crew alerting system (EICAS). The chapter concludes with an examination of the attitude heading reference system (AHRS). * Flight management systems. This chapter deals with the FMS as fitted to the B767. It covers the flight management computer (FMC), which is the heart of the FMS and where the integration of all the inputs from other systems takes place. To conclude the chapter, we show the operation of an FMS as controlled by a pilot using the control display unit (CDU) on a typical flight. * Automatic flight control system. This discusses the basic autopilot and associated control systems, the yaw damper and fly-by-wire systems. The chapter concludes with a detailed description of the autopilot flight director system (AFDS), including the autothrottle and automatic pitch trim, followed by an example of a typical autoflight operation. * Warning and recording systems. Finally, we deal with the various warning systems, and include detailed descriptions of the ground proximity warning system (GPWS) and traffic alert and collision avoidance systems (TCAS). The chapter concludes with descriptions of the flight data recorder (FDR) and cockpit voice recorder (CVR).